Talk:Méxica Empire

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Note: sources are often inconsistent or contradictory.

Spellings vary - e.g. 'toh' or 'to' in some Nahuatl words.


The historical Aztec aristocracy consisted of:

  • Tlatoani - speaker, the most powerful being the Huey Tlatoani. Plural Tlatoqueh.
  • Cihuatlatoani - female speaker. Plural Cihuatlatoqueh.
  • Tetecutin - lords or chiefs.
    • Huey Tecutli - great lord, applied to a provincial governor.
    • Tecutli - Lord. Reverential : Tecuhtzintli
    • Tecutlatoani - Lord Speaker
    • Cihuatecutli - Lady.
  • Pipiltin - sons of nobility.
    • Pilli - son of nobles or a noble who never becomes one of the Tetecutin.
      • Tlatocapilli - prince, son of a Tlatoani (plural Tlatocapipiltin).
      • Tecpipiltin - sons of chiefs.
      • Tlazopipiltin - esteemed princes or legitimate princes - sons by wives
      • Calpanpipiltin - sons by concubines.
    • Cihuapilli - daughter of a noble.
  • Cuauhpipiltin - eagle nobles.

Titles of the Emperor

  • Huey Tlatoani - Revered Speaker
  • Tlacatecuhtli - Lord of Men
  • Tlaltecutli - Lord of the Earth

The Great Palace

The Tecuhtlatoloyan, the Royal Court of the Excan Tlatoloyan, 'the tribunal of three seats',
the Triple Alliance of the:
Acolhuatecuhtli chichimecatecuhtli Lord of the Acolhua and Chichimec
Culhuatecuhtli Lord of the Culhua
Tepanecatecuhtli Lord of the Tepanec

The Tlatocalli, the Ruler's House, the Huey Tecpan – the great palace included three law courts:
Tlacxitlan High court, the council hall
Teccalli High court of appeal; a tecalli is found in each city
Tecpilcalli House of Nobles. Court of the noble warriors, usually included four judges in session
Other parts of the palace
Coacalli Guest House
Calpixcalli Treasury
Texancalli House of Records
Petlacalco House of Coffers
Cuauhcalli Eagle House meeting place of the Eagle knights
Achcauhcalli House of Officers
Malcalli House of Captives
Mixcoacalli Cloud-Snake House - singers and dancers
Totocalli Bird House - zoo

Council of Chief Men and Priests

Title Translation
Huey Tlahtoani “Great Speaker”
Cihuacoatl “Snake Woman”
Chief Minister
The chiefs of the four campan of Tenochtitlán
Tlacatecatl “Cutter of Men”
Tlacochcalcatl “Master of the House of Darts”
Tlilancalqui “Master of the House of Darkness”
Ezahuahuacatl “Blood Shedder”

The Tlahtocan Court

The Tlahtocan, the supreme council, the residence of the Huey Tlahtoani, consisting of:

  • The Emperor
  • Twelve Tecuhtlatoque - “Lords that govern the public well being and speak it.”
Title Translation Notes
Huey Tlahtoani “Great Speaker” The Emperor
Tlacatecatl “Cutter of Men” Responsible for the organization of the army and the Tlacatecco, the military quarter - containing a pyramid and temple devoted to Huitzilopochtli
Also a title for provincial governors
Tlacochcalcatl “Master of the House of Darts” Responsible for the provision of weapons and shields from the Tlacochcalco, the “House of Darts”
Also a title for provincial governors
Huitznahuatl “Thorn Words” Responsible for the provision of transport
Tlilancalqui “Master of the House of Darkness” Responsible for the Tlilancalco the House of Darkness, temple of Cihuacoatl
Ezhuahuacatl “Blood Shedder”
Ticociahuacatl “Keeper of the Bowl of Fatigue” Responsible for the provision of supplies and logistics
Tezcacoatl “Keeper of the Mirrored Snake”
Tocuiltecatl “Person from Tocuillan”
Atempanecatl “Keeper on the Edge of the Water” Atempan is a calpulli of Tenochtitlán
Cuahnochtli “Chief of the Eagle and Prickly Pear”
Acatliyacapanecatl “Person from Acatliyacapan” “Over the Reeds’ Edge”, location in Tenochtitlán
Tequixquinahuacatl “Saltpeter speech” Overseer of Tribute?

  • The Tlahtocan was served by the Itemictihcahuan cateah Tlahtoani, executioners obeying the Emperor.

Other High Officials

Tlatoque (speakers of subordinate towns) and Tetecutin (lords) of the court:

Title Translation Notes
Tezcacoacatl “Person from Tezcacoac” “Mirrored Serpent”, location in Tenochtitlán
Ahcolnahuacatl “Person from Acolnahuac” “Near the shoulder”
Huey Teuctli “Great Lord”
Temillohtli “Honored owner of stone fields”
Calmimilolcatl “Person from Calmimilolco”
Mexicateuctli “Méxica Lord”
Huitznahuacatl “Person from Huitznahuac” Huitznahuac is a calpulli of Tenochtitlán
Quetzaltoncatl “Person from Quetzaltonco”
Tlapaltecatl “Person from Tlapallan” Mythological destination of Quetzalcoatl.
Cuauhquiahuacatl “Person from Cuauhquiahuac” “Eagle Gate”, location in Tenochtitlán
Coatecatl “Person from Coatlan”
Panrecatl “Person from Pantlan”
Huehcamecatl “Person from Huecaman”

The Tlacxitlan Court

The Tlacxitlan, the highest court of law.

Title Translation
Cihuacoatl “Serpent Woman” - Chief Minister
Tlacochcalcatl “Master of the House of Darts”
Ezhuahuacatl “Blood Shedder”
Huitznahuatlailotlac “Raining Blood”
Pochtecatlailotlac “Merchant Arbiter”
Ticociahuacatl “Keeper of the Bowl of Fatigue”
Tocuiltecatl “Keeper of the Worm on the Blade of Maize”
Tecuhtlamacazqui “Lord Priest”
Mixcoatlaylotlac “Cloud Snake Arbiter”
 ?  ?
 ?  ?
 ?  ?

The Teccalli Court

Teccalli or teccalco, the court of justice, consisted of three Teuctlahtohqueh:

Title Translation
Tlacatecatl “Cutter of Men”
Pochtecatlailotlac “Merchant Arbiter”
Cuauhnochtli “Chief of the Eagle and Prickly Pear”

Tetlatzontequilica Courts

Tetlatzontequilica, the lower calpulli court of justice, usually having three Teuctlahtohqueh:

Title Translation
Tlatzontequini Judge who pronounces the sentence
Teuctlahtoh Judge
Teuctlahtoh Judge

Law and Order

The Court

Teohvatzin Priest-judge
Teuctlahtoh Judge (plural Teuctlahtohqueh)
Tianquizpan Tlayacanqui Marketplace police/judge
Tlatzontequiliztlamatini Wise judge
Tepantlahtoh Lawyer (plural Tepantlahtohqueh)
Tecpoyotl Herald who announces the sentence

The Police

Centecatlapixqui Police Chief (plural Centectlapixqueh)
Tecuachcauhtli Palace constable? (plural Tecuachcauhtin)
Achcauhtli Constable/Executioner (plural Achcacauhtin)
Teilpilcallapixqui Prison warder

Government Officials

Imperial Officials

Huey Tlatoani Great Speaker The Emperor
Cuauhnochtli Chief of the Eagle and Prickly Pear Senior Imperial Governor
Governors of Imperial possessions, usually serving in pairs:
Tlacochcalcatl Master of the House of Darts Senior Quartermaster? (plural Tlacochcalca)
Tlacatecuhtli Chief of Men Administrator (plural Tlacatetecutin)

Tezcacoacatl Person of the Mirrored Serpent
Tlilancalqui Master of the House of Darkness

Senior Officials

Huey Tecutli Great lord Provincial governor (plural Huey Tetecutin)
Cuauhtlatoani Eagle Speaker Military governor (plural Cuauhtlatohqueh) Also used to refer to the Tlacateccatl and Tlacochcalcatl. A Cuauhtlatoani could become a Tlatoani.
Tlatoani Speaker City governor (plural Tlatoque) Originally a city ruler
Tecutli Lord Governor (plural Tetecutin) Member of the aristocracy
Tlacatecuhtli Chief of Men Administrator, lower in status than a Tlatoani (plural Tlacatetecutin) Also a title of the Huey Tlatoani
Tecutlatoani Lord Speaker - royal official
Huey Calpixqui Great Tribute gatherer; governor (plural Huey Calpixqueh)
Tepanecatl Dweller in the palace Adviser? (plural Tepaneca)
Tepachoh President, governor, director (plural Tepachoani)
Tequixquinahuacatl Overseer of Tribute
Mexicatl Achcauhtli Chief of the Mexica officials/constables
Petlacalcatl Senior official in charge of the tribute store


Amatlacuiloh Paper scribe (plural Amatlacuiloqueh)
Amoxhua Keeper of a book (plural Amoxhuaque)
Cohuatequitopileh Official In Charge Of Public Works
Cuaxochpixqui Border guard
Tecpoyotl Herald
Topilehcahuah Chief Of The Officials
Topileh Staff-bearer – Official (plural Topilequeh)
Tlayacanqui Guide, leader (plural Tlayacanque)
Tlapixqui Guard, servant (plural Tlapixqueh)
Tlacuiloh Scribe (plural Tlacuiloqueh)
Creator and interpreter of written records
Yaotlachixqui Sentinel (plural Yaotlachixqueh)
Tlaltopileh Official in charge of Land
Tlalpouhqui Surveyor (plural Tlalpouhqueh)
Nahuatlahtoh One who speaks clearly - interpreter
Quimichin Mouse - spy (plural Quimichtin)
Tianquiztlacanqui Market administrator (plural Tianquiztlacanqui)
Titlancalqui Official in charge of messengers
Titlanitl Messenger (plural Titlani)
Titlantli Messenger, envoy, ambassador (plural Titlantin)
Tlanahuatilli Deputy, envoy (plural Tlanahuatiltin)
Payin Courier (plural paynani?)
Xiuhtlacuiloh Chronicler (plural Xiuhtlacuiloqueh)
Acalco tepachoh Captain of a vessel
Xolo Page, servant boy
Coco Servant girl


Tequixquinahuacatl Overseer of Tribute
Petlacalcatl Senior official in charge of the tribute store
Huey Calpixqui Great Tribute gatherer; governor (plural Huey Calpixqueh)
Tequitlahtoh Tribute speaker; assessor of tribute (plural Tequitlahtohqueh)
Calpixqui Tribute gatherer (plural Calpixqueh or Cacalpixqueh)
Tequitqui “Laborer" or "tribute payer" (plural tequitinimeh)
  • Stored in the Calpixcalli, the treasury; the Texancalli appears to have been the house of records.

Local Officials

Calpullec Chief official of a Calpulli
Calpullequi Head man/Official of the Calpulli (plural Calpullequeh)
Tepixqui Official/Guard of the Tlaxilcalli (plural Tepixqueh)
Cihuatepixqui Female Official/Guard of the Tlaxilcalli (plural Cihuatepixqueh)
Tlaxilacalleh Official of Ward/Ward Elder (plural Tlaxilacallequeh)
Cihuatlaxilacallequi Female Ward Elder (plural Cihuatlaxilacallequeh)


  • Telpochcalli, the house of the young people.
    • Cuicacalli, the house of song.
    • Mixcoacalli, the Cloud-Snake House.
  • Calmecac, the house of the lineage overseen by the Tecpan Teohuatzin
    • Mecatan, where the priest-performers learned to play flutes.
    • Cuauhcalli, eagle house, where the elite youths were taught the use of weapons by Eagle and Jaguar knights.

Teachers and Officials

Telpochteuctli Administrator of the young men (plural telpochtlatoque) - of the boys telpochcalli
Ichpochteuctli Administrator of the young women (plural ichpochtlatoque) - of the girls telpochcalli
Teachcauh Master of youths (plural Teachcahuan or Teachcacauhtin)
Telpochtlatoh Ruler/Instructor of youths (plural Telpochtlahtohqueh)
Ichpochtiachcauh Mistress of young women (plural Ichpochtiachuan)
Temachtiani Teacher, tutor (plural: Temachtianime, reverential: Temachticatzintli)
Tlamatini Wise person/teacher (plural Tlamatinime)
Tequihuahqui Veteran soldier (plural Tequihuahqueh)
Yaotequihuah War captain; a veteran warrior; leader of youths (plural Yaotequihuahqueh)

Telpochtin Students of the Telpochcalli
Tlamacazton Little priest novice - a student at the Calmecac school.

Officials Of the Cuicacalli and Mixcoacalli

Ometochtli Two Rabbit - director of music
Cuicapicqui Composer and singer of songs
Epoacuacuilli Tepictoton Composer of chants for the temples and private homes
Cuicatlamantini "Skilled in song" Accomplished poet
Cuicani Singer/poet (plural cuicanimeh)
Macehualcuicani Dancer/singer (plural macehualcuicanimeh)
Tlapizcatzin Lord of the Flute House constructor of musical instruments
Looked after and corrected the chants dedicated to the gods.
Quaquacuiltzin Singer and player of the teponaztli
(a horizontal drum of a hollow hard wood trunk)
  • Cuicoyan Place of song
  • Netotiloyan Place of dancing

Types of Chant

In xochitl, in cuicatl - the flower, the song.

  • Ahuilcuicatl : Chants of the pleasure girls.
  • Anahuacayotl : Chants of Anahuac, of country near the water.
  • Atzotzocolcuicatl : Chants of the young girls.
  • Chalcayotl : Chants of Chalco.
  • Chichimecayotl : Chants of the Chichimecs.
  • Choquizcuicatl : Sad chants.
  • Cihuacuicatl : Chants and dance of women or men disguised as women.
  • Cococuicatl : Chants of pain.
  • Cuappitzcuicatl : Chants and dance of the cripples.
  • Cuauhcuicatl : "Eagle Song" – chants of war.
  • Cuecuechcuicatl : Erotic dance.
  • Cuextecayotl : Chants and dance of Cuextlan.
  • Huehuecuicatl : "Songs of the Old Men"
  • Huexotzincayotl : Chants of Huexotzinco.
  • Cozcatecayotl : Chants of Cozcatlan.
  • Cuatezoquicuicatl : Chants of the Shorn Ones (senior warriors).
  • Cuatacuicatl : Chants of Cuaquata.
  • Huexotzincayotl : Chants of Huexotzinco.
  • Icnocuicatl: Songs of destitution or compassion.
  • Ixcuecuechcuicatl : Erotic/burlesque songs.
  • Melahuacuicatl : "Straight and true song" used to open festivals.
  • Metztitlancalcayotl : Chants of Metztitlan.
  • Miccacuicatl : Chants for the dead.
  • Nonohualcayotl : Chants of the Nonohualca.
  • Noteuhcuicaliztli :"Song of my lords".
  • Otoncuicatl : Chants of the Otomis.
  • Oztomecayotl : Chants of Oztoman.
  • Tenicayotl : Chants of people who do not speak Nahuatl.
  • Teocuicatl : "Sacred Song" - chants praising a god.
  • Tepetlacayotl : Chants of Tepetlan.
  • Teponazcuicatl : Chants accompanied by two-toned drums.
  • Teuccuicatl : Songs of the lords and chiefs.
  • Tlahuancacuextecayotl : Chants mimicking or celebrating intoxication.
  • Tlaocolcuicatl : Chants of lamentation.
  • Tlauancacuextecayotl : Songs of the Tlauancacuexteca.
  • Tlaxotecayotl : Chants of Tlaxotlan, in the honor of Huitzilopochtli.
  • Tochcuicatl : "Chant of the Rabbits" celebrating the gods of pulque and intoxication.
  • Tozozcuicatl : Vigil chants.
  • Yaocuicatl : "Songs of warriors"
  • Xochicuicatl : "Flower-song".
  • Xopancuicatl : "Song of the spring".

Wise Men

Tlamatini Wise person/teacher (plural Tlamatinime)
Tlamatiniton Small wise person, apprentice?
Tlamatilizmatini Teacher, doctor (of learning)
Tlamatiliztemachtiani Professor
Cahuipouhqui Dedicated to time: Time-keeper (plural Cahuipouhqueh)
Ilhuica tlamatilizmatini Person wise in the ways of heaven (plural Ilhuica tlamatilizmatinime)
Teotecuhtli Divine-lord (plural Teotecutin)
Teopixqui Keeper of the god priest (plural Teopixqueh)
Tonalpouhqui Soothsayer, an interpreter of the signs of the calendar. (plural Tonalpouhqueh)
Amatlacuiloh Paper scribe (plural Amatlacuiloqueh)
Amoxhua Keeper of a book (plural Amoxhuaque)
Tonalpouhqui Soothsayer, an interpreter of the signs of the calendar. (Plural Tonalpouhqueh)

The Priesthood

Temple Priests

Quetzalcoatl totec tlamacazqui High priest of Huitzilopochtli
Quetzalcoatl tlaloc tlamacazqui High Priest of Tlaloc
Mexicatl Teohuatzin Mexica Lord of High Matters, the Teuctlamacazqui who is part of the Tlacxitlan court.
Huitznahuac Teohuatzin Assistant to the Teohuatzin concerned with ritual.
Tecpan Teohuatzin Assistant to the Teohuatzin concerned with calmecac schools.
Huellateomatini Great theologian (plural Huellateomatinime) - originally a priest of Quetzalcoatl.
Tlaquimiloltecuhtli Lord of the things wrapped in cloth - the treasurer
Teoyotica tepachoh Senior priest
Teoyotica tepachoh cihuatl Senior priestess/abbess
Tlenamacac Fire seller elite priest (plural Tlenamacaqueh)
Teomama God bearer (plural Teomamaque) - carried the altar
Teopixqui Keeper of the god priest (plural Teopixqueh)
Tonalpouhqui Divination priest/astrologer (plural Tonalpouhqueh)
Tlapouhqui Confessor priest
Cuacuilli Priest (plural Cuacuiltin) - Elderly priests of the cult of Huitzilopochtli
Cihuacuacuilli Priestess (plural Cihuaquacuiltin)
Tlamacazqui Offering priest (plural Tlamacazqueh) Also played flute.
Supervised the Tlamacazton.
Cihuatlamacazqui Offering priestess (plural Cihuatlamacazqueh)
Tlamacazcateiccauh Lesser offering priest (plural Tlamacazcateiccahuan)
Tlamacazton Little priest novice - a student at the Calmecac school.

Priests on the Battlefield

Tlamacaztequihuah Senior warrior-priests (plural Tlamacaztequihuahqueh) More than three captives
Tlamacazcatequihuah Warrior-priest (plural Tlamacazcatequihuahqueh) Three Captives
Cuextecatl Huaxtec (plural Cuexteca)
Appears to have had the same title as an ordinary warrior
Two captives
Tlamacazcaiyahqui Warrior-priest (plural Tlamacazcaiyahqueh) One captive
Texoxotla ticitl Sorcerer-physician

Healers and Magic Users

Atlan Tlachixqui A Looker into Water
Ticitl Healer (plural Titicih)
Tetlacachihuiliani Midwife
Tetlacuicuilique They who draw out stones
Tetlanocuilanque They who draw out worms from the teeth
Teixocuilanque They who draw out worms from the eyes
Tetonalti A healer of the soul (plural Tetonaltin)
Xochimalca "flower-weaver", a senior Tetonalti
Teyollohcuani To eat someone at the heart an evil sorcerer or sorceress
Mecatlapouhque Fortune tellers by the strings
Nahualli Sorcerer, sorceress. (Plural Nahualtin or Nanahualtin) Carries a nahualcuahuitl - a sorcerer's staff, also known as an Ayochicahuaztli - a gourd-rattle sistrum.
Nahualtecuhtli Sorcerer-lord (plural Nahualtecutin)
Teotecuhtli Divine-lord (plural Teotecutin)
Teopixqui Keeper of the god priest (plural Teopixqueh)
Tlaciuhqui Sorcerer, astrologer. (Plural Tlaciuhqueh)
Tlapouhqui Wizard, soothsayer, confessor priest. (Plural Tlapouhqueh)
Tonalpouhqui Soothsayer, an interpreter of the signs of the calendar. (Plural Tonalpouhqueh)
Tzompanteuctli Skull-rack lord - oracle (plural Tzompanteuctin) especially from Cuitlahuac

The Warriors


Hierarchy of the Orders

Cuachicqueh Shorn Ones Often painted their heads:
  • In the colours of the war god Painal - vertically divided, half blue and half yellow (or red).
  • Black on top of head, and possibly the neck as well.
Otonin Otomies
Cuahtlocelotl Eagle-Jaguars

Knightly Ranks

Cuauhtlatoani Eagle Speaker military governor (plural Cuauhtlatohqueh) used to refer to the Tlacateccatl and Tlacochcalcatl)
Cuauhtlahtoh Commanding general (requires four captives) (plural Cuauhtlahtohqueh)
Cuauhpilli Eagle Noble (plural Cuauhpipiltin)
Cuauheuhueh Eagle-Jaguar Elder - knights too old to fight (plural Cuauhuehuetqueh)
Cuauhyahcatl Great Captain (plural Cuacuauhyahcah)
Cuauhtli Eagle Warrior (plural Cuacuauhtin)
Ocelotl Jaguar Warrior (plural Ocelomeh)
Cuahtlocelotl Eagle-Jaguar (collective term for Eagle/Jaguar knights)

Knight Titles

Huey Oquichtli Great Man
Huehuey Tiyahcauh Senior chieftain (plural Huehuey Tiyahcahuan) Alternative title for a Tlacateccatl or Tlacochcalcatl
Tlacochtecuhtli Dart-lord (plural Tlacochtetecutin)
Tlacateuctli Lord of Men (plural Tlacatetecutin)
Chimaltecutli Shield Lord (plural Chimaltecutin)
Huey Tiyahcauh Great chieftain (plural Huey Tiyahcahuan)
Tiyahcauh Chieftain (plural Tiyahcahuan) Alternative title for a Cuauhyahcatl
Huey Cuauhtli Great Eagle Warrior (plural Huey Cuacuauhtin)
Huey Ocelotl Great Jaguar Warrior (plural Huey Ocelomeh)

Warrior Ranks

Tlacatecatl “Cutter of Men” A sixth captive taken from Atlixco, Huexotzingo or Tliliuhquitepe
Tlacochcalcatl “Master of the House of Darts”
Cuauhyahcatl Great Captain (plural Cuacuauhyahcah) usually a captain of the Eagle or Jaguar knights A fifth captive taken from Atlixco, Huexotzingo or Tliliuhquitepe
Cuachic Shorn Ones (plural Cuachicqueh) More than six captives
Otomitl Otomi (plural Otonin) Five or six captives
Tequihuahqui Tribute Owner - Veteran/elite soldier (plural Tequihuahqueh) acts as an envoy; teaches in the Tepochcalli; organises the march of the army Four captives or more. Eligible to become a Cuahtlocelotl.
Telpochtlatoh Ruler of youths (plural Telpochtlahtohqueh) Four captives
Teachcauh Master of youths (plural Teachcahuan or Teachcacauhtin) Three captives
Cuextecatl Huaxtec (plural Cuexteca) Two captives
Telpochyahqui Leading Youth (plural Telpochyahqueh) - a Tlamini - captor One captive
Cuexpalchicacpo Youth with a baby's tuft No captives after three or four campaigns

Military Titles

Yaotachcauh Chief of war (plural Yaotachcahuan)
Yaotequihuah War captain; a veteran warrior; leader of youths (plural Yaotequihuahqueh)
Yaotlachixqui Sentinel (plural Yaotlachixqueh)
Yaoquizqui Soldier/Warrior (plural Yaoquizqueh)
Yaotlapixqui Scout (plural Yaotlapixqueh)

The Merchants


Pochtecatlailotlac Chief of the city guilds, part of the Tlacxitlan court.
Pochtecatlatoani Merchant Speaker for a calpulli guild (plural Pochtecatlatoque)
Tlailotlac Arbiter in Mercantile Affairs
Pochtecahuehueh Merchant Elder (plural Pochtecahuehuetqueh)
Teucnehnenqui Travelling Lord (plural Teucnehnenqueh)
Tealtiani Slave Sacrificer (plural Tealtianimeh)
Tecouani Slave trader (plural Tecouanimeh)
Pochtecatl Merchant (plural Pochteca)
Iyahqui Merchant at an outlying depot or trade station (plural Iyahqueh)


Acxoteca Merchant-General
Teyahualoani Besieger of the Enemy (plural Teyahualoani)
Cuauhpoyahualtzin Brown Eagle Lord
Tecuani Wild Beast - jaguar
Naualoztomecatl Merchant-Spy (plural Naualoztomeca)
Oztomecatl Vanguard-Merchant (plural Oztomeca)

Local Traders

Tlanecuilo Regional traders and pedlars
  • Anamacaque, water sellers.
  • Ayohuachnamacaque, sellers of gourd or squash seeds.
  • Cacnamacaque, sellers of sandals.
  • Chiennamacaque, chia sellers.
  • Cuachnamacaque, sellers of large cotton capes.
  • Enamacaque, bean sellers.
  • Huauhnamacaque, who sold the seeds of amaranth (pigweed), which was used in several ceremonies, with images of the gods (notably Huitzilopochtli) made with amaranth mixed with honey to be eaten by the people.
  • Huitzmallonamacaque, needle sellers.
  • Ihhuinamacaque, feather sellers.
  • Iztanamacaque, sellers of salt.
  • Nacamacaque, meat sellers.
  • Neucnamacaque, maguey syrup sellers.
  • Ocotzonamacaque, pine resin sellers.
  • Panamacaque, medicine sellers.
  • Petlanamacaque, reed mat sellers.
  • Tananamacaque, basket sellers.
  • Tenexnamacaque, lime sellers.
  • Tilmanamacaque, mantle sellers.
  • Tizanamacaque, chalk sellers.
  • The Tlacemanqui pedlars who sold items, including silver and gold.
  • Tlacualnamacaque, food sellers.
  • The Tlanamacac producer-sellers who came to the markets to sell their produce.
  • Totoltenamacaque, egg sellers.


  • Acalquetzqui - Boatmaker.
  • Amatlamatqui - Paper Designers; Those Skilled With Paper.
  • Anqui - Hunter; Huntsman
  • Cacnamacac - Seller of Sandals
  • Cuauhxinqui - Carpenter; Woodcarver; Woodcutter
  • Cuicani - Singer, Musician
  • Enamacac - Bean Seller
  • Huehuetzonani - Drum Beater
  • Ichtequini - Thief
  • Ihhuinamacac - Feather Seller
  • Milchiuhqui - Field Worker
  • Mitotiani - Dancer
  • Nacamacac - Meat Seller
  • Ocotzonamacac - Pine Resin Seller
  • Octlali - Pulque Or Wine-Maker
  • Petlachiuhqui - Mat Maker; Reed Mat Weaver
  • Tananamacac - Basket Seller
  • Teocuitlapitzqui - Gold-Worker - Goldsmith
  • Tetzotzonqui - Stone Cutter
  • Texochimacac - Flower Server
  • Tilmanamacac - Mantle Seller
  • Tlachicqui - Wine Maker
  • Tlaciuhqui - Sorcerer, Soothsayer
  • Tlacualnamacac - Food Seller
  • Tlacuillo - Scribe, Painter
  • Tlahmachchiuhqui - Weaver of Designs
  • Tlalchiuhqui - Farmer
  • Tlaminqui - Hunter; Huntsman
  • Tlanamacani - Seller of Wares
  • Tlatlaquetzani - Teller of Tales
  • Tlatzonqui - Tailor
  • Tlaxinqui - Carpenter

Social Units

Components of a household
Cencalli One house
Ithualli Inner courtyard
Cihuacalli House of Women - building where prostitution was permitted by political and religious authorities
Chantli Home/dwelling
Callalli Household plot
Calmilli Garden or field surrounding a house
Calli House/Compound Household
Units composed of Households
Callatelli Group of houses/hamlet
Chinamitl Square made of Reeds
Calpulli Community - Big House - a collection of calli
Tlaxilcalli Neighborhood/district
Larger units
Campan Quarter
Tlayacatl A sub-altepetl inside a large city
Altepetl City/State
Huey Altepetl Great Kingdom/Empire
Mexihcatlahtohcayotl The Rule of the Méxica/Méxica Empire

Cities, Districts & Houses

Achcauhcalli Police house
Altepecalli Government house
Altepetl Water-mountain - City (plural Altepeme)
Amoxcalli House of books
Calli House
Calpulli Community (plural Calputin)
Campan City quarter
Coacalli Guest house
Cuauhcalli Eagle House - barracks for Eagle and Jaguar knights
Huehuecalli Old House - house of the lord of a Campan
Oztomecacalli House of a merchant
Pilcalli Noble house
Teccalli Lordly house - owned by a lord and occupied by his family and retainers. Refers to both a palace, noble family and associated lands.
Tecpan Where the lord is - Palace
Temazcalli Steam bath house
Teocalli God house - temple
Tequihuacacalli Warrior house - barracks for Tequihuahqueh, Otonin and Cuachicqueh.
Tlatocayotl Kingdom
Tlanamaquizcalli Shop
Tlaxillacalli District, common name for a calpulli or altepetl unit
Tlayacatl A sub-altepetl inside a large city
Tlazohcalli Sumptuous house
Yaocalli War house - fortress
Yaotecuihuacacalli House of a war leader - the palace of a Cuauhtlatoani.

Land Ownership

Altepetlalli Municipal land
Callalli Household plot
Calmilli Garden or field surrounding a house.
Calpullalli Community land Calpulque paid tribute to the Tlatoani and Teccaleque to the Tecuhtli, a governor appointed by the ruler who lived in the calpulli.
Cihuatlalli Woman land - owned by a woman and often brought with her into a marriage by inheritance.
Huehuecalli Old house - inherited house
Huehuetlalli Old land - inherited land
Mexicatlalli Mexica land
Milchimalli Military land Used to pay military expenses.
Pillalli Noble's land Farmed by tenants paying tribute to the nobles.
Tecpantlalli Palace land Used to pay for palace & courts, farmed by families paying rent by service to the palace.
Tecpillalli Noble palace/house land Farmed by tenants paying tribute to the nobles.
Tecuhtlalli Lord's land
Tequitcatlalli Tribute land Worked to pay tribute to the conqueror.
Teotlalli Temple land Cultivated by students, the faithful and laborers.
Teuhtlalli Dust land - dry land
Tlalcohualli Purchased land
Tlatocammilli Ruler's land Used to pay royal, governmental expenses & to feed foreigners lodged in the palace.
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