Cihuacoatl

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  • Náhuatl: 'snake woman'. In Méxica mythology she was a fertility goddess and patron of mothers, particularly women who died in childbirth.
  • Traditional title of the adviser and vizier of the Méxica Emperor with especial responsibility for legal affairs. The most famous was Tlacaelel.
  • Judicial authority in the Méxica Empire.

Courts

Nisei Term Court Méxica Term
Saikō Saibansho Supreme Court Tlacxitlan
Kōtō Saibansho High Court Teccalli or Teccalco
Chihō Saibansho District Court Tetlatzontequilica
Shouhou Saibansho Commercial Court Pochteca Tlahtocan
Kan'i Saibansho Summary Court Teuctlahtohcaicpalli

Legal Titles

Nisei Term Title Méxica Term
Hōmu Daijin Minister of Justice Cihuacoatl
(Snake Woman)
Saiko Saibansho Saibankan Supreme Court Judge Teuctlahtohqui
(High Court Judge)
Saibankan Judge Tlatzontequiliztlamatini
(Wise Judge)
Jisha bugyō Priest-judge Teohuahtzin
(Lord Priest)
Shochou Chief Judge
(of a District Court)
Tlatzontequini
(The Pronouncer of Sentences)
Hanji Magistrate Teuctlahtoh
(Judge)
Kanjō bugyō Commercial Magistrate Tianquizpan Tlayacanqui
Kensatsukan Public Prosecutor Teixpahuih
(He who accuses)
Bengoshi Attorney Tlahtlalhuia
(He pleads for someone)
Lawyer Tepantlahtoh
Shihō Shoshi Judicial Scrivener Nahuatillaliani
(Legal Advisor)
Gyōsei Shoshi Administrative Scrivener Tecpoyotl
(Herald)
Benrishi Patent Attorney

Méxica Legal Terminology

Méxica Term Meaning
Ahchihualiztli An illegal act – a crime.
Ahyectlachihua To commit a crime.
Ahyecyotl Crime, vice.
Attohuia First charge read to the court.
Ilhuia To bring a complaint.
Nahuatileh Law abiding.
Nahuatilli The Law – obligation and duty - literally “a set of spoken commands”.
Neteilhuilli Accusation.
Teixpahuia To bring someone to court.
Tetlacaanaliztli Detective work – literally “the way to catch people”.
Tetlacuepiliani Appeal for justice.
Tetlatzacuiltiliztli Sentence.
Tetlatzontequililiztli Judgement. Trial.
Teuctlahtoa Court case.
Tlacuepaliztli Appeal to a higher court.
Tlahtlacolli Fault, blame.
Tlamanitiliztli Usage, custom.
Tlatzontequilizilhuitl Hearing.
Tlatzontequiliztli Judgement/sentence .
Tzontequi To pronounce sentence.
Tzontequilia To try, to convict – literally “to cut their hair” - historically preparing the condemned for sacrifice.


SS:WOF

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